1 PROF.(MRS) CHUKA-OKOSA CHIMDI MEMNOFU PROFESSOR/HOD 080 37729250 Chimdi_8691@yahoo.com
2 PROF (MRS) UMEH  RICH ENUJIOKE PROFESSOR 080 33324691 umehrich@yahoo.com
3 VEN. PROF. EZEPUE UDECHUKWU FELIX PROFESSOR 080 36766673 Udeifenna@yahoo.co.uk.
4 VEN. PROF. ONWASIGWE ERNEST NNAEMEKA PROFESSOR 080 60797379 erniemeka@yahoo.com
5 PROF. MAGULIKE OBIEFUNA NWABUEZE PROFESSOR (Contract) 080 37077918 Nwabuezemagulike@yahoo.com
6 DR  OKOYE IKE ONOCHIE Snr. Lecturer  080 33133810 oicokoye@yahoo.com
7 DR  MADUKA-OKAFOR FERDINAND CHINEDUM Snr. Lecturer 080 34545717 okaformaduka@yahoo.com
8 DR (MRS) AGHAJI ADA EJEALOR Snr. Lecturer 080 33355667 aaghaji@yahoo.co.uk
9 DR  EZE BONIFACE IKENNA Snr. Lecturer  080 33165767 Xyz3165767@yahoo.com
10 DR (MRS) EZEGWUI IFEOMA REGINA Snr. Lecturer 080 37777479 Ifeoma.ezegwui@unn.edu.ng.
11 Dr Onwubiko Stella Ngozi Lecturer I 080 37434803 srstellao@yahoo.com
12 Dr Obiekwe Okoye Lecturer I 080 37007163 eagleobi@yahoo.com
13 Dr. Enechi Gilbert Obi Asst Chief Optometrist 080 33244064 elimehi@yahoo.com
14 Ms. Edah Patricia Elejechi Chief Typist/Ag.Sec 070 32347091  
15 Mrs. Ugwuagu Onyinye Ifeoma Snr Executive Officer 080 30906973  

The Department of Ophthalmology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus had come into inception by 1997/72. It was initially a sub department within the department of Surgery, until a point when it started functioning as a department.
Since inception to date, the department has been evolving from a department with general Ophthalmology as its main focus to a department with various subspecialty units at different levels of operation. These subspecialty units include Community Ophthalmology, Paediatric Ophthalmology, Glaucoma, External disease/Cornea, Medical Retina, Neuro-Ophthalmology, Oculo-plastics and Low Vision rehabilitation. The ultimate goal of the department is to grow into a full-fledged institute of Ophthalmology.

List of previous Heads of Department:
The pioneer head of the Department was Prof. Kodilinye, who also was the Vice-Chancellor of the University.
The subsequent heads of department at various points in time were Dr. Talwar, Dr. J.O. Ojukwu, Dr. Gupta, Dr. P.B. Nworah, Dr. N.O. Magulike, Dr. R.E. Umeh, Dr. E. N. Onwasigwe, Dr. U.F. Ezepue, Dr. O.I. Okoye and Prof. C.M. Chuka-Okosa. Apart from having NUC accreditation, the department also has training accreditation from the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria and the West African College of Surgeons where our current Head of Department is the Faculty Chairman of Opthalmology.

Pattern of growth and development from inception to date:
The department now has 10 lecturers (5 professors and 5 Senior lecturers). Before 2oo2 there were no professors in the department.

a. Programme Title: Ophthalmology for Undergraduate Medical Students
b. Programme/Sub-Discipline/Discipine Philosophy and Objectives.
Philosophy: Modern medical practice is about taking care of the total man within his environment. The eye is an essential part of man’s body. Man’s environment is permeated with the milieu of light for which God has equipped man with appropriate receptors within the eye. The eye, therefore, as the organ of sight must be healthy to enable man to appreciate his environment. Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the study and maintenance of eye health. It is therefore pertinent that a student of medicine also learns the rudiment of eye health care to enable him, on graduation, function as an integrated eye health worker. That is the raison d’etre of learning ophthalmology in medical schools.
Objectives: To produce general duty doctors equipped with enough knowledge and skills to provide basic eye care.
Learning Objectives: As a component of undergraduate medical education, the objective of the Programme is to produce medical doctors who have adequate knowledge and skills to be able to function in the community as integrated eye care workers able to diagnose and manage common eye diseases; recognize major blinding diseases and refer such as appropriate, pursue further postgraduate studies and research in the field of ophthalmology, participate as a member of the eye health care team in preventive, promotive, curative, and rehabilitative eye care. Consequently, on
completion of the course, the student should be able to:
1. Take a good history of the patient with an eye disorder and be able to carry out basic eye examination.
2. Define visual acuity, visual field, blindness visual impairment and low vision.
3. Describe methods for measuring and recording visual loss
4. Describe the anatomy and functions of the various parts of the eye
5. Enumerate the symptoms and signs of common eye and blinding disorders as well as ocular components/signs of systemic diseases.
6. Discuss the management of common eye disorders clearly stating when to treat and when to refer.
7. Describe the actions, uses and side effects of common ophthalmic drugs and the side effects of other drugs on the visual system; be able to list the essential drugs for eye care.
8. Discuss visual enhancement and visual substitution and when to prescribe either.
9. Enumerate and discuss the three levels of prevention in eye health.
10. Discuss community approach and strategies for control of major blinding disorder.
11. Discuss vision 20020 – The Right to Sight.
12. Discuss the assessment of knowledge, Attitude, Perception and Practices (KAPP) of eye disorders in a community and use the information in advocacy for eye health in a community.
13. Discuss the principles of counseling and how to gather and use information on where visual enhancement and visual substitution services are available.
14. Discuss the basic principles of comprehensive integrated eye care services and the role of the Integrated Eye Care Worker.
Admission Requirements: The requirements are those of the MB BS Programme.
The Ophthalmology Programme is part of the surgical disciplines the student has to exhibit some degree of proficiency inorder to pass the final MBBS examination.
The Programme covers clinical anatomy and physiology of the eye; Basic principles of the clinical consultation for the eye patient including the clerking, physical examination, investigations, diagnosis, recording of findings, presentation and treatment; Common pharmacology, principles of ophthalmic therapeutics and essential drug list, Common diseases of the eye lids, lacrimal apparatus, orbits and adnexia, Diseases of the conjunctiva, sclera and cornea, Diseases of the uveal tract and retina including the macula, Normal papillary responses and disorders; Cataract and glaucoma, Disorder of the vitreous, optic nerve and visual pathway; Strabismus, low vision and errors of Refraction, Common Childhood Eye Disorders including Childhood blindness; Ocular trauma, Major causes of Blindness, Community Eye Health with emphasis on Tropical ophthalmology, Patient counseling and case reporting, Modern technology in eye care including lasers and ophthalmic instruments
Each student is expected to have acquired reasonable degree of competence in the following clinical skills at the end of the posting in Ophthalmology.
i. Clerked, examined and presented at least two cases
ii. Performed direct ophthalmoscopy on at least 5 patients to appreciate the features of a normal fundus oculi and differentiate this from abnormal fundi.
iii. Attended a minimum of 4 surgical operation sessions.
iv. Attended a minimum of 4 clinical sessions
v. Acquired competence in measuring distance and near visual acuity
vi. Acquired competence in external eye examination with per-torch
vii. Acquired competence in examining the pupil to describe its shape, position and elicit its reactions.
viii. Acquired competence in performing indentation tonometry with the Schiotz tonometer.
ix. Able to remove superficial corneal and conjunctival foreign bodies.
x. Understand the principles and able to perform confrontational visual field analysis.
Relevant section of the log book is signed for the student at the satisfactory acquisition of the particular skills.
Course Content Specifications/Syllabus of the course:
1 Basic Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye
- Anatomic coats of the eye and their functions (cornea/sclera, uvea and Retina)
- Contents of the eyeball and their functions (aqueous humour Crystalline lens and vitreous humour)
- Extra-ocular muscles: attachments, innervations and actions
- Appendages of the eye: eyelids, conjuctiva, lacrimal apparatus Structure and functions.
- Bony orbit – contents and connections.
2 Visual Acuity and Visual Field
- Definition of Visual acuity and visual field
- Concept of acuity blindness and field blindness, low vision and visual impairment.
- Methods of evaluation/measurement
- Distance Visual Acuity (DVA) versus Near Visual Acuity (NVA)
- Visual Field – Central, peripheral, focal and full field examinations
- Perimetry – Confrontation, Bjerrum’s Friedman’s Automated and other types.
3. History-taking and Basic eye Examination
1 History
- Presenting complaint(s) with duration
- History of presenting complaint (HPC}
- Past Ocular History (POH)
- Family Ocular HISTORY (FOH)
- Past Medical and Surgical History (PMS)
- Drug and Allergy History (DAH)
- Family and Social History (FSH)
- General Health (GH)
- Review of Systems (ROS)
- Summary of History
2. Examination
- General Examination – Pulse, BP, Palor, Lymphdenopathy
- Systemic examination – CNS, ENT, CVS, RS, GTT, UGS, MSS
- Ocular Examination – VA, Ocular Motility, Globe integrity, form and structure, Eyelids, Lacrimal apparatus, conjunctiva, Cornea, Anterior Chamber, Pupil, Iris, Lens, Retina, Intraocular Pressure
4. Basic Ocular Pharmacology
- Ocular drug penetration
- Routes of administration of administration of drugs that act on the eye
– topical, sub-conjuctival, retrobulbar, parabulbar, intracdameral, intravitreal, oral parental
- Commonly used eye medication – antibiotics, anti-virals, anti-fungals, anti-inflammatory agents (Steroidal, and non-steriidal), anti-allerics
- sympathomimetics, parasympthominetics, ocular hypotensive agents, cytotoxic drugs, local anaesthetics agents, vitamins (vitamin A)
- Diagnostic eye medications – Fluoroscein and Rose Bengal
- Traditional eye medications/harmful traditional eye practices
- Ocular essential drug list
- Treatment – spectacle lens, contact lens, keratorefractive surgery,
Phakic and aphakic intraocular lens implanation.
- Presbyopia – Definition, presentation and treatment.
5. Refractive Errors and Presbyopia
- Definition, incidence and prevalence
- Types – hypermetropia, myopia, astigmatism, anisometropia, aphakia
- Presentation – History, clinical features.

6. Blindness, Visual Impairment, Low Vision and Community Eye Health
- Definition
- Epidemiology
- Types – avoidable, non-avoidable, preventable and curable blindness
- Common causes – cataract, glaucoma, trachoma, age related macular
- Degeneration, refractive error, harmful traditional eye medication
- Treatment – Medical, surgical, and refractive
- Levels of prevention and community approach to prevention
- Primary Eye Care in Primary Health Care
- Vision 2020 – the Right to Sight
- Rehabilitation of the incurably blind – Visual enhancement and Visual substitution.
7. Eyelid Disorders
- Stye, Chalazion, Blepharitis
- Ptosis, Entropion, Ectropion, Lagophthalmos
- Neoplasms – Squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma
8. Conjunctival Disorders/Red Eye

- Infective conjunctrivitis – Bacterial, viral, fungal and chlamydial
- Allergic conjunctivitis
- Chemical conjunctivitis
- Conjunctival degenerations – pingueculum, pterygium
- Conjunctival neoplasms – Squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
- Red Eye – Causes, presentations and principles treatmen t.
- Carneal Disorders
- Keratitis/ulcers/scars – fungi, bacterial, viral and protozoal
- Staphylomas.
- Keratoplasty, keratorefractive surgery, keratoprosthesis
10. Cataract
- Definition
- Classification
- Aetiology
- Clinical presentations – history, examination
- Treatment – ICCE, ECCE, Phakoemulsification
- Visual rehabilitation after cataract surgery – spectacle lens, contact
Lens, intraocular lens (IOL) – types: PCIOL, ACIOL
11. Glaucoma
- Definition
- Classification
- Aetiology
- Clinical presentations – history, examination
- Treatment – Trabeculectomy, Viscocanalestomy, Deep Sclerectomy, Shunt procedures, laser.

- Presentations – History, Examination
- Treatment: medical, surgical, laser, shunt valve implant
- Blindness prevention Earlly detection through family screening.
12. Intraocular Inflammations: Uveitis and Endophathalmitis
- Definition
- Classification
- Aetiology
- Clinical features
- Complications
- Treatment
13. Orbital Disorders
- Definition, causes, clinical features, investigations, treatment and complications of:
i. Proptosis (differentiate from exophalmos)
ii. Orbital cellulitis
iii. Orbital Pseudotumour
iv Orbital abscess
14. Basic Neuro-ophthalmololgy
- Normal papillary reaction – near reaction, light reaction
- Pupil abnormalities – size, shape, position and reaction 9RAPD, TAPD),
Secclusio and occlusion papillae
- Optic nerve palsies – 3rd. 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th
15. Paediatric Ophthalmology
- Visual acuity assessment in children
- Measles and vitamin A deficiency disorders
- Ophthalmia neonatarum
- Squint and amblyopia
- Congenital cataract and glaucoma
- Cortical blindness (cortical visual impairment)
16. Tropical Ophthalmology
- Onchocerciasis
- Trachoma
- Leprosy
- Tubereulpsis
17. Ocular Involvement in Systemic Diseases
- Systemic hypertension]
- Diabetes mellitus
- Sickle cell disease
- Thyrotoxicosis and thyroid related orbitopathy
- Myasthenia gravis
- Albinism
18. Ocular Traumatology
- Physical eye trauma – blunt, penetrating, perforating eye injuries.
- Hyphaema
- Chemical eye injuries – acids and alkalis
- Thermal eye injuries – burns
- Radiation eye injuries – ionizing radiation, solar retinopathy, (eclipse retinopathy)
19. Common Oribito-Ocular Neoplasms
- Retinoblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, optic nerve tumours – glioma and meningioma
- Metastasis from breast, bronchus, prostate, GIT etc.
- Local invasion from paranasal and intracranial tumours.
20. Demonstration of Basic Ophthalmic Instruments and Clinical Procedures
- Instruments:
i. Direct ophthalmoscope, indirect ophthalmoscope, slit lamp
biomicroscope, pen-torch.
ii. Schiotz tonometer, Perkins tonometer, Goldman’s tonometer automated
perimeters, automated Perimetry chart.
iii. Lid speculum, chalazion clamp and scoop, lid retractors
iv. Trial lens, trial frame and trial lens case, Snellen’s DVA and
NVA charts, low vision aids.
v. Fluorescein strip.
Clinical Procedures
i. Fluorescein staining
ii. Conjunctival swab
iii. Instillation of eye drops/ointments
iv. Irrigation of the eye
v. Application of dressing – eye pad and eye bandaging
vi. Tonometry – Schiotz, Goldman, Perkins.
vii. Examination of the pupil, demonstration of pupillary reflexes – direct,
consensual and near.
viii. Eversion of the lid
ix. Removal of superficial conjunctival foreign bodies.
X. Demonstration of Funduscopy on undilated eye and recording of findings
(c/d ratio, disc oedema, disc atrophy)
xi. Performing basic eye examination
xii. Performing confrontational visual field testing.
Attach list of titles of Degrees projects, if any, carried out by students in the Programme/Sub- Disciplined/Discipline in the last three years:
The Department of Ophthalmology is a member of the Combined Board of Surgery. As such undergraduate examination in Ophthalmology is part of the General Surgery Examination at the 5th
II MBBS Examination: Questions on the subject are included in the paper I (Multiple choice ) and paper II (essay) parts of the examination. In addition, at the clinical examination, ophthalmology cases are presented to students as short cases. Students at the end of their Clinical Posting in Ophthalmology are assessed by the Department. This Assessment is in the form of a one hour multiple choice examinations. The scores from this form part of the Continuous Assessment of Score at the 5th MBBS Examination.
Examination Proper:

a) 5th MB BS Examination:
The Department of Ophthalmology is a member of the Combined Board of Surgery. As such undergraduate examination in Ophthalmology is part of the General Surgery Examination at the 5th MBBS Examination. Questions on the subject are concluded in the paper 1 (multiple choice) and paper II (essay) parts of the examination. In addition, at the clinical examination, ophthalmology cases are presented to students as short cases.

b) End-of-posting test:
Students at the end of their Clinical Posting in Ophthalmology are assessed by the Department. This assessment is in the form of a one hour multiple choice questions. The scores from this form part of the Continuous Assessment Scores at the 5th MBBS Examination. In setting the questions each academic staff contributes questions which a coordinator prepares and administers.
All academic staff are involved in invigilation and marking of the scripts.
c) Marking
a) Evaluation is made as objective as possible by use of marking guidelines prepared for each question and examination.
b) A system of double marking is used to ensure internal moderation.
d} Academic Atmosphere:
The Department makes the environment conducive for academic work. The class rooms are shared with other departments. Academic policies are as made by the Faculty Board of Studies, the Academic Board of the College of Medicine and the Senate of the University of Nigeria. Use of multimedia projector and availability of other digital and electronic teaching accessories make teaching and learning relatively smooth. Regular didactic lectures, interactive teaching, ward rounds, seminars, clinical conferences and group discussion are modes used to facilitate learning.

Prevalence of refractive errors in Nigerian School age children.

- Residency training programmes of the National Postgraduate Medical College and West African College of Surgeons.
Within the next 5 years, the department has plans of having fully functional subspecialty units: Vitreoretina, Neuroophthalmology, Oculoplastics, Anterior Segment/Cornea, Glaucoma, Paediatric ophthalmology, Low vision rehabilitation.