Past and Present Heads of Department


1. Dr. D. K. Mukharjee 1974 - 1997
2. Prof. B. C. Okafor 1979 - 1982, 1998
3. Prof. M. N. Obiakor 1982 - 1985, 1988, - 1997, 1998/99
4. Dr. Olu Ibekwe 1986 - 1988
5. Dr. N. C. Mgbor 1999 - 2002, 2004 – 2006
6. Dr. B. C. Ezeanolue 2002 2004, 2006, 2008
7. Dr. IJ. Okorafor 2008 2010
8. Dr. F. T. Orji October 2010 till date

HISTORY
The Department of Otorhinolaryngology, UNTH, came into existence in 1974 after the senate of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, gave approval for its establishment. Before that it was a unit in the Department of Surgery. Dr. Anyaegbunam administered the unit from 1955 – 1974 as the pioneer ENT Surgeon while Dr. Gibbs from Glasgow Infirmary, United Kingdom, was a visiting Consultant.

Prof. B. C. Okafor, who would later become the doyen of Otorhinolaryngology in Nigeria, joined the department as a Senior Training Fellow (Senior Registrar) on the 3rd of July 1973. He was appointed a Consultant ENT Surgeon in 1974, and by 1st October 1983 became a Professor of Otorhinolaryngology – the first indigenous Professor of Otorhinolaryngology in Nigeria.

Dr. D. K. Murkharjee, was employed to the post of Senior Lecturer/Consultant (Otorhinolaryngology) in 1973, he became the acting head of the department of Otorhinolaryngology from 1974 – 1979.

The other staff in the evolution of the Department are: Dr. M. N. Obiako and Dr. Olu Ibekwe who were employed as Consultants in 1977 and 1978 respectively; Mrs. Murkharjee, an Audiological staff, 1974; Mr. Nwaogbo an Audiometrician, 1977, Dr. B. C. Ezeanolue and Dr. B. C. Okoye were the pioneer Residents when the Residency Training Programme took off in 1985.

Furthermore Drs. N. C. Mgbor and P. E. Udeh byoyed the staff strength as Senior Registrars in 1985 while Mrs. Ayodele Ukaejiofor was appointed the Speech Therapist in 1987.

ALUMINI OF THE DEPARTMENT
Since the inception of the Residency Programme the following regular Residents successfully completed the training and obtained the Part II Fellowship in Otorhinolaryngology from this Department:

1. Dr. B. C. Ezeanolue 1990
2. Dr. B. C. Okoye 1990
3. Dr. A. N. Udeh 1994
4. Dr. O. G. B. Nwaorgu 1995
5. Dr. I. O. Gbujie 1999
6. Dr. E. C. Aneke 1998
7. Dr. Victor Ette 1998
8. Dr. I.J. Okorafor 2001
9. Dr. M. A. Ajaero 2004
10. Dr. F. T. Orji 2005
11. Dr. J. N. Nwosu 2006

The Department also trains Supernumerary Residents in Otorhinolaryngology from other centers. It offers short postings to Residents of the Faculty of Ophthalmology and General Medical Practice.

The Supernumerary Resident that had all their training here and passed Part II Fellowship examinations are:

S/No NAMES INSTITUTIONS
1. Dr. A. D. Salisu Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano (AKTH)
2. Dr. E. Afiadigwe Nnamdi Azikiwe Teaching Hospital Nnewi
3. Dr. M. Makusidi Usman Dan Fodio University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto
4. Dr. E. S. Kolo Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano (AKTH)
5. Dr. E. A. Dahilo Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano (AKTH)
6. Dr. F. Ibiam Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (EBSUTH)
7. Dr. M. Agbonifo Delta State Ministry of Health Asaba

The Supernumerary Residents that had part of their training or rotated through here and passed Part II Fellowship are:

1. Dr. (Mrs.) N. Undie University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin (UBTH)
2. Dr. Okorugbo University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin (UBTH)
3. Dr. Paul Adobamen University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin (UBTH)
4. Dr. Lucky Onoti University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital PH (UPTH)
5. Dr. Solomon Labaran University of Jos Teaching Hospital Jos (UNIJOS)

List of Resident Doctors:
S/No NAMES INSTITUTIONS
1. Dr. N. I. Ilechukwu Senior Registrar
2. Dr. V. C. Ofoegbu Senior Registrar
3. Dr. J. O. Akpeh Senior Registrar
4. Dr. J. C. Ugwuadu Senior Registrar
5. Dr. J. T. Ausha Senior Registrar
6. Dr. Dr. Ethel Chime Registrar
7. Dr. G. N. Umedum Registrar
8. Dr. C. O. Ukaegbe Registrar
9. Dr. O. C. Nwabueze Registrar
10. Dr. O. P. Ajuba Registrar

Supernumerary Resident:

1. Dr. Felix Nweke
2. Dr. N. Okata
3. Dr. A. Ohaneme
4. Dr. D. Mgbafulu
5. Dr. P. Kuni


1. DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITIES:

(i) Undergraduate Training:
The Department trained medical students during their clinical postings, gave lectures in ENT topics, seminars and conferences.

(ii) Postgraduate (Residency) Training:
The Department offers Residency training in Otorhinolaryngology. Residency training methodologies are by lectures, seminars, ward rounds, operating theatre sessions, project works, bed-side demonstrations and clinics. Management skills are inculcated along with clinical duties. Academic and practical skills are emphasized. The Department also trains Supernumerary Residents in Otolaryngology from other centres. It offers short term postings to Residents of the Faculties of Ophthalmology and General Medical Practice.

(iii) Research Activities:
Consultants and Residents engage in various research activities covering various spheres of otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck surgery and scientific phenomenon.

(iv) Continuous Education Programme:
Staff both academic and non-academic are availed the opportunity to update their knowledge.

(v) Clinical Activities:
The Department runs out-patient clinic, in-patient ward, operating theatre; accident and emergency attendance and intensive care unit.

2. ACADEMIC REGULATION OF DEPARTMENT OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY:

This is the same as the academic regulation of the University.

(a) Departmental Grants & On-going Research:
No known grants to the Department as at present.
On-going Research:

(a) Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in children. How reliable are clinical and radiological signs. By. Dr. F. T. Orji and Dr James O. Akpeh.

(b) Prospective study of Rhinoenthomorplithoromycosis: Its facial mutilation as seen in South Eastern Nigeria. By Dr. F. T. Orji & Dr. O. C. Okafor (Department of Morbid Anatomy).

I Profile of Otolaryngological emergencies seen in South-East University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Experience. By Dr. IJ. Okorafor.

3. EXISTING POST GRADUATE PROGRAMMES:
(a) Residency Training in Otolaryngology
(b) Masters in Audiology (Proposal stage).

4. STRATEGIC PLANS:
(a) Proposal for commencement of sub-specialty units viz:
- Otology
- Paediatric otolaryngology
- Laryngology
- Audiology.

(b) Proposal for commencement of Master Programme in Audiology
(c) Completed arrangements and facilities are underway for the commencement of “Temporal Bone Dissection” Courses for the post-graduate Resident doctors and tutorship of medical students on postings to the Department.


5. CURRICULUM OF DEPARTMENT OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY:
1. Job Description:
At the end of the training, the graduates should possess adequate knowledge; skills and attitude necessary to do the following:
(a) Diagnose common ear, nose, throat, head and neck diseases and know their treatment;
(b) Screen patients with hearing loss;
Provide relevant information to Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) patients by way of counseling and advice;
(d) Perform Otoscopy, rhinoscopy and indirect laryngoscopy;
(e) Perform clinical tests of hearing, including pure tone audiometry;
(f) Keep good clinical records and produce reports of ORL conditions seen by him or her;
(g) Advocate for ORL care services at primary, secondary and tertiary levels to policy makers;
(h) Work in a multidisciplinary setting with other health care providers;
(j) Supervise workers working with him.

6. OUT-PUT OBJECTIVES:
On completion of the training, the student would be able to have the following knowledge:

(1) Describe the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the ear, nose, paranasal sinuses pharynx, larynx head and neck regions;
(2) Describe methods of measuring and recording hearing loss;
(3) Enumerate the signs and symptoms of
(i) Ear diseases
(ii) Nasal diseases
(iii) Pharyngeal and laryngeal diseases.

(4) Discuss the management of common ear, nose and throat diseases;
(5) Describe the common methods of rehabilitation of hearing loss, voice loss, speech disorders and loss of equilibrium;
(6) Discuss prevention of hearing impairment using community and occupational approaches;
(7) Discuss the assessment of counseling and how to gather and use information common disorders of hearing loss, tumours of the head and neck;
(8) Discuss the assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, Perception and Practice (KAPP) of ORL Head and Neck disorders in the community and use in advocacy for ORL health in a community;
(9) Describe the uses, actions and side-effects of drugs used in ORL practice;
(10) Discuss the emergency management of common ORL, disorders such as epistaxis, acute air way obstruction acute traumatized patients, acute disabling vertigo;
(11) Present cases in clinical conference, ward rounds;
(12) Assist in operative surgical sessions in ORL;
(13) Describe how to remove foreign bodies impacted in ORL regions.

Materials:
a. Patients and medical students
(ii) Auroscope – battery operated
b. Head lamp or Bulls Chiron lamp and head mirror;
(iv) Clinical audiometer;
(v) Tymparometer;
(vi) A Set of E. N. T. clinical instruments.


7. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF COMMON ORL DISEASES:
1. Basic Anatomy and physiology of ear, nose and throat;
2. Clinical history taking and examination of the ORL;
3. ORL essential drug list. Their uses side-effects;
4. Hearing loss and tests of hearing;
5. Principles of fitting Hearing Aids;
6. Acute and chronic supparative otitis media;
7. Vertigo/Dizziness;
8. Allergy in ORL;

9. Trauma in Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
- Maxillary fracture
- Blow out fracture of orbit
- Penetrating neck injuries
- Gun shot wounds in ORL
- Lacerations in ORL
- Burns
- Corrosive oesophagitis.

10. Foreign body impactions in the
- Ear
- Nose
- Pharynx
- Larynx
- Trachaeobronchial tree

11. ORL manifestations of disease:
- HIV/AIDS
- Hypertension
- Diabetis mellitus
- Sickle cell diseases
- Dermatological disorders
- Thyroid diseases.

12. Neoplasia in ORL, Head and Neck; especially;
- Carcinoma of larynx
- Nasopharyngeal neoplasia
- Jaw tumours
- Salivary gland tumours.

13. Paediatric Otolaryngology:
- Congenital anomalies
- Adenoid disorders
- Speech disorders
- Syndnomic and non-syndromix hearing losses.

14. Inflammatory diseases of the ear, nose, paranasal sinuses, larynx, pharynx, head and neck specifically:
- Tonsillitis
- Chronic supparative otitits media
- Deep neck space infections
- Chronic rhinosimistis.

15. Epistaxis

16. Geritric Otolaryngology:
- Presbyamsis
- Ageing process of the ORL
- Dizziness.

Methodology:
1. Lectures
2. Clinics and clinical conferences
3. Tutorials and seminars

8. PRACTICAL:
(1) Basic clinical examination of the ear, nose, throat, head and neck;
(2) Tuning fork test;
(3) Test of all cranial nerves;
(4) Otoscopy and micro-otoscopy;
(5) Rhinoscopy;
(6) Pharyngosocopy;
(7) Indirect laryngoloscopy;
(8) Posterior rhinoscopy;
(9) Flexible nasopharyngolaryngosopy;
(10) Vestibular tests;
(11) Pure tone audiometry;
(12) Tympanometry;
(13) Irrigation of the ear;
(14) Antral irrigation;
(15) Obtaining ear swab

Duration: 10hrs
Practical: 5 Clinical Sessions

Material Required:
1. Bulls eye lamp and head mirror;
2. Head light;
3. Auroscope – electric or battery operated;
4. Set of tuning forks;
5. Laryngeal mirrors;
6. Postnasal laryngeal mirror;
7. Clinical audiometer;
8. Tympanometer;
9. X-Ray viewing box;

9. ASSESSMENT:
Students are to attain 75% minimum attendance to all activities to be eligible for the final grading:
(1) Formative assessment;
(2) End of posting assessment:
(i) Skills portfolio - 10 – 20 cases
(ii) Theory question - Essay + MCQ
(iii) Clinicals - Long & Short cases
(iv) Group project report
(3) The scores from ORL will be used in the part fulfillment of the continuous assessment score of the final years 5th MB.BS examination in Surgery.

10. RECOMMENDED TEXTBOOKS AND READING MATERIALS:

(1) Scott Browns Textbook of Otolaryngology, Volumes 1 to 6

(iv) Synopsis of Otorhinolaryngology

(v) Internet based web sites:

a. Dr. Quinn’s online textbook of Otolaryngology (www.utmb.edu/otoref/Grunds/)

b. www.emedicine .com

c. PubMed

d. HINARI subscription to Journals.


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